Net Promoter Score Definition
Net Promoter Score® (NPS) is a measure of customer loyalty based on the feedback of its customers. Although seemingly simple, NPS is a complex metric providing you with instant awareness of:
- Customer loyalty & satisfaction levels,
- Growth potential,
- Quality of customer experience,
- Brand sentiment,
- Organizational performance.
How to calculate Net Promoter Score?
To calculate Net Promoter Score, you need to subtract the percentage of Detractors from the percentage of Promoters [ NPS = % Promoters – % Detractors ].
NPS questions are scored on a 0-10 and it’s important to remember that the Net Promoter Score (NPS) is not expressed as a percentage but as an integer lying between -100 and +100.
Who are Promoters?
Promoters are respondents giving a 9 or 10 score. These are your most loyal customers who are not only likely to come back but also recommend you to their peers and publicly sing your brand’s praises. What is more, Promoters tend to make recurring purchases even if your pricing is not the best they can find around.
Who are Passives?
Passives are respondents giving a 7 or 8 score. This group is the hardest to activate. Passives are typically “satisfied but unenthusiastic customers who can be easily wooed by the competition.”
Who are Detractors?
Detractors are respondents giving a 0 – 6 score. Detractors are unhappy customers who are most likely to switch to your competition at the earliest opportunity. Sadly, they are also the ones who tend to share most.
Let’s take a look at the example: if you have 35% Promoters and 20% Detractors, the NPS will be +15.
A result greater than 0 is considered satisfactory, and those north of 50 are considered very good. However, even companies with top NPS scores (approximately 70) still have room for improvement.
Check out the graph below to learn the range of NPS across industries based on insights from 10,000 U.S. consumers:
Source: Net Promoter Score Benchmark Study.
Net Promoter Score Questions
NPS allows you to see your company through the eyes of your customers without the complexity of traditional surveys. Instead of going through lengthy questionnaires, customers are asked what is often referred to as ‘the ultimate question’:
‘How likely is it that you would recommend [company X] to a friend or colleague?‘
Why this particular question? In 2003, Frederick F. Reichheld introduced the concept of NPS in the seminal article in HBR ‘The One Number You Need to Grow‘.
Following two years of research, Reichheld found out that the likelihood to recommend the company to your network ‘correlated directly with differences in growth rates among competitors’ (in comparison to other questions he examined in the course of his study, such as:
- ‘How strongly do you agree that [company X] deserves your loyalty?’
- ‘How strongly do you agree that [company X] sets the standard for excellence in its industry?’
- ‘How satisfied are you with [company X’s] overall performance?’
If you’re interested in NPS, I strongly recommend reading Reichheld’s article in entirety as it was a stepping stone for the industry.
Dont underestimate the power of open-ended verbatim
Dig deeper by asking a follow-up question:
‘Why?, or ‘What is the reason for your answer?’ (or something along these lines).
This type of questions allows you to elicit why customers feel about your business one way or another. From a much broader question, you go vertically and get feedback which is more actionable and more specific.
As former Director of Product at LinkedIn, Sachin Rekhi rightly argues “the most actionable part of the NPS survey is the categorization of the open-ended verbatim comments from promoters & detractors”. It’s good to know how high your score is, but even more important to understand why it is what it is so you can make improvements to customer experience.
Why you need to skip logic in survey NPS questions?
Skip logic allows you to ask the smallest number of highly relevant questions possible, as well as create a personalized experience.
Respondents are asked questions based on the answers they’ve previously given, which increases the response rate. Thanks to skipping logic, you can disqualify candidates who don’t meet your criteria or generate leads by asking survey participants to leave their details if they wish to be contacted.
However, the biggest advantage of skip logic is that you can get a true understanding of your customers by means of follow-up questions which let you inquire into the implications of their answers.
Here’s what skip logic looks like in action:
How to Collect NPS Data
The fastest way to measure Net Promoter Score® (NPS) is to possess NPS software like Survicate!
Using Survicate multichannel NPS software, you can survey your audience via email and in your app. You can capture actionable feedback to proactively reduce churn and driving growth for your business.
NPS Email Surveys
Email surveys use hyperlinks embedded in HTML code of your email. A response is counted whenever someone clicks a given link in the survey. Email surveys can be typically sent from regular inboxes like Gmail or via mailing software, marketing automation software like Intercom, or as email templates in CRMs like Salesforce.
The latter is very useful when you want to survey customers after they’ve performed a certain activity, i.e. post-purchase survey.
Answers are recorded in a database of your survey tool which takes away the manual work and makes them easy to analyze and compare over time and across segments.
Email surveys have a high response rate because they require very little time and effort on the side of the respondent. They also don’t need any code to the site to run so they are super simple to implement even for non-technical staff.
The main drawback is that you need email addresses to get started – if you want to get feedback from a broader audience, you might be interested in running a targeted website survey.
Topics that might help you expand your knowledge a lot:
Targeted Website Surveys
Although this approach steps away from the traditional email surveys, a lot of our customers use it with great success.
The good thing about website surveys is that they can be conducted on a much larger scale because you don’t need email addresses to proceed.
They are often used by bloggers and news sites who don’t typically ask for addresses and have no “customers” in the traditional sense. However, if you do have traditional customers, the good news is that you can target them via your browser cookies which makes the results reliable.
Due to their unobtrusive character, website surveys come with high response rates (up to 58%). Another advantage is that they can be precisely targeted at various visitor segments, i.e. based on how often they visit or how they got to your site.
They can also be freely customized in terms of what they look like to the user and where they appear (left, right, bottom, top or in the center of the screen).
Ready to start collecting feedback on your website with powerful website surveys?
Why is Net Promoter Score Important?
Net Promoter Score is important because according to Nielsen research, ‘The most credible advertising comes straight from the people we know and trust’ and the statistics speak for themselves:
- 83% of global respondents rely on personal recommendations from people they know
- 66% of respondents worldwide trust consumer opinions posted online
This innate inclination to trust other people lies at the heart of a profound key performance metric.
The beauty of NPS lies in its dual nature – although “the ultimate question” feels easy to respondents and requires very little time, its implications are quite complex and leave loads of room for improvement for the marketer.
However, there’s a catch.
NPS allows you to remove the guesswork from your business decisions based on one condition: you need to act upon the insights gathered in the process.
As Nichole Elizabeth DeMeré argues, you should “think of NPS, or Net Promoter Score, like rocket fuel. If you leave it alone, it won’t do much. But when you load it into a responsive, proactive, customer-driven company: blast off.”
If you do so, NPS can have a number of benefits both for the company and the respondent:
- The system intuitive and simple to implement even for non-technical staff,
- It’s easy to comprehend and share across teams and departments. It also doesn’t need to be explained to respondents,
- It’s an operating management tool – because the results are so actionable, it reflects the strengths and weaknesses of any team faster than other KPIs do,
- It’s got a high response rate and is time-efficient both on the side of the responder and the surveying party,
- It’s comparable over time & easy to benchmark. As long as you keep the survey contents intact (wording, the order of questions, number of questions, etc.), you can compare results with great accuracy,
- It’s actionable. Although going through individual comments of respondents takes a lot of manual work, they are an absolute goldmine of customer insights. It is generally advised to categorize answers given by survey participants (both positive and negative) to detect the strengths and weaknesses of the assessed product or service.
- Finally, NPS allows you to identify customers at the risk of churning so you can step in and give them a helping hand.
At this point, it must be emphasized that NPS should be an addition to the performance, acquisition, and monetization KPIs, but cannot be treated as their substitute.
Why NPS Works
Firstly, it’s because of the ways our brains are wired. NPS puts the customer in the center of the survey – notice it’s:
“How likely is it that YOU would recommend [company X] to a friend or colleague?”
“How did [company X] do?”
People spend approximately 30% – 40% of their conversations talking about themselves and based on findings of Harvard University research, they get a “biochemical buzz from self-disclosure”. We are programmed to enjoy sharing our views and opinions, and NPS makes use of this tendency.
Secondly, NPS is so powerful because it’s simple. In fact, the shorter the survey, the more actionable it tends to be because results are easy to interpret.
What is more, NPS is a data-driven approach relying on customer insights. Because it’s consumer-centric and organized, it allows looking at the right pieces of the puzzle (and not random ones).
Finally, people hate long surveys. They just do and you’re probably not an exception. Time is a commodity that we’re not eager to give away easily.
Long surveys tend to yield low response rates and volatile results. Due to the number of questions, results may be ambiguous, difficult to interpret and even harder when it comes to translating feedback into action.
10 Best Practices for NPS
1. Turn feedback into action
Categorize positive and negative feedback to see underlying issues and attend to them as they arise.
2. Don’t focus on detractors only
Look for what Sachin Rekhi calls “magic moments”. Deduce when customers are truly activated and focus your optimization efforts on getting as many of them to that point.
3. Measure continuously
According to Rob Markey and Fred Reichheld, “Accurate Net Promoter scores depend on a constant flow of data.” It’s the only way to get in-the-moment insights, track unexplained variations, and see how your customers feel about the changes you’re introducing in real-time.
4. Report continuously
Find a tool which allows you to see your results in an easily digestible way, like this beauty here:
5. Survey gently & in context to avoid frustration
6. Resolve problems on the purchase path which you find in your categorized answers
7. Get instant notifications of low scores so you can react in real-time
8. Remember to use skip logic to ask relevant questions only
9. Be consistent
It’s the only way you can ensure results are comparable over time. Every change you introduce matters, including question wording and order they appear in.
10. Say “thank you” at the end of your survey
Remember – the time is a commodity, and someone just gave you a little bit of their time. It’s only fair you thank you for the gift.
Although NPS shouldn’t be treated as the only source of knowledge about the state of your business, it’s definitely worth adding it to your KPI repertoire.
Remember to start with a general question and add follow-up ones as you go to get more specific feedback. Make sure you turn your feedback into action – don’t let your data just sit there.
Net Promoter® and NPS® are registered trademarks of Bain & Company, Satmetrix Systems, and Fred Reichheld.